An April 2018 study reports that “objective evidence from brain imaging shows personally meaningful music is an alternative route for communicating with patients who have Alzheimer’s disease.” The research, published by a team at University of Utah Health in Salt Lake City in The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease, demonstrates that familiar music may facilitate attention, reward and motivation, which in turn makes it more possible to manage emotional distress in Alzheimer’s. While the study’s small sample size and single imaging sessions leave room for more research to be done, the findings mark a significant step toward demonstrating how Music & Memory’s personalized music program is a therapeutic mechanism to address measurable improvement in mood, awareness and quality of life for people with dementia. Read more .
Swallowing, self-feeding and choking issues affect many people with advanced dementia, leading to serious health consequences such as dehydration, malnutrition and weight loss (change of status). This 2018 study, published in conjunction with Dr. Stephen Post of Stony Brook University in Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice presents data indicating Music & Memory’s personal music intervention improves swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, making eating easier and potentially diminishing reliance on feeding tubes and PEG intervention. This is a significant finding at a pilot level and is strong enough to warrant further replication. Read more.
A 2017 study by Brown University, published in The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, compares behavioral and psychological resident outcomes before and after implementation of the Music & Memory program. Ninety-eight nursing homes trained in Music & Memory were studied along with 98 matched-pair comparisons for the year 2012-2013. The results show that discontinuation of antipsychotic medications increased in Music & Memory facilities (23.5% to 24.4%), while decreasing among comparison facilities (24.8% to 20.0%). Facilities using Music & Memory also demonstrated increased rates of reduction in behavioral problems (50.9% to 56.5%) versus comparison facilities (55.8% to 55.9%). Implication for practice concluded that “effective, non-medicalized, low-cost interventions such as Music & Memory, are critical to address the needs of the growing ADRD population.” Read more.
(Compiled by Nina S. Parikh, PhD, MPH, Brookdale Center for Healthy Aging of Hunter College, CUNY)[spoiler title=”Therapeutic Effects of Personalized Music” open=”0″ style=”1″]
Gerdner, L.A. (2005). Use of individualized music by trained staff and family: translating research into practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(6), 22-30.
Gerdner, L.A. (2000). Effects of individualized versus classical ‘relaxation’ music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(1), 49–65.
Gerdner, L.A. (1999). Individualized music intervention protocol. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 25(10), 10-16.
Gerdner, L.A. (1997). An individualized music intervention for agitation. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 3(6), 177-184.
Gerdner, L.A., & Schoenfelder, D.P. (2010). Evidence-based guideline. Individualized music for elders with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(6), 7-15. doi: 10.3928/00989134-20100504-01.
Ragneskog, H., Asplund, K., Kihlgren, M., & Norberg, A. (2001). Individualized music played for agitated patients with dementia: analysis of video-recorded sessions. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 7(3), 146–155.
Sung, H.C., & Chang, A.M. (2005). Use of preferred music to decrease agitated behaviours in older people with dementia: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(9), 1133-1140.
Sung, H.C., Chang, A.M., & Abbey, J. (2006). The effects of preferred music on agitation of older people with dementia in Taiwan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(10), 999-1000.
Sung, H.C., Chang, A.M., & Lee, W.L. (2010). A preferred music listening intervention to reduce anxiety in older adults with dementia in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing 19(7-8), 1056–1064. doi: 10.1002/gps.2761[/spoiler] [spoiler title=”Music Therapy” open=”0″ style=”1″]
Brotons, M., Koger, S.M., & Pickett-Cooper, P. (1997). Music and dementias: A review of literature. The Journal of Music Therapy, 34(4), 204–245.
Choi, A.N., Lee, M.S., Cheong, K.J., & Lee, J.S. (2009). Effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a pilot-controlled trial. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(4), 471–481.
Clair, A.A. (1996). The effect of singing on alert responses in persons with late stage dementia. The Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 234-47.
Clark, M.E., Lipe, A.W., & Bilbrey, M. (1998). Use of music to decrease aggressive behaviours in people with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 24(7), 10–17.
Cooke, M.L., Moyle, W., Shum, D.H., Harrison, S.D., & Murfield, J.E. (2010). A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on agitated behaviours and anxiety in older people with dementia. Aging & Mental Health, 14(8), 905-16.
Crystal, H., Grober, E., & Masur, D. (1989). Preservation of musical memory in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 52(12), 1415–1416.
Evans, D. (2002). The effectiveness of music as an intervention for hospital patients: a systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(1), 8–18.
Gibbons, A.C. (1977). Popular music preferences of elderly people. The Journal of Music Therapy, 14(4), 180–189.
Goodall, D., & Etters, L. (2005). The therapeutic use of music on agitated behavior in those with dementia. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19(6), 258–262.
Götell, E., Brown, S., & Ekman, S.L. (2002). Caregiver singing and background music in dementia care. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(2), 195–216. doi: 10.1177/ 019394590202400208.
Guétin, S., Portet, F., Picot, M.C., Pommié, C., Messaoudi, M., Djabelkir, L., Olsen, A.L., Cano, M.M., Lecourt, E., & Touchon, J. (2009). Effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia: randomized, controlled study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 28(1), 36–46.
Koger, S.M., Chapin, K., & Brotons, M. (1999). Is music therapy an effective intervention for dementia? A meta-analytic review of literature. The Journal of Music Therapy, 36(1), 2-15.
Munro, S., & Mount, B. (1978). Music therapy in palliative care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 119, 1029–1034.
Snyder, M., & Chlan, L. (1999). Music therapy. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 17, 3–25.
Sung, H.C., Lee, W.L., Chang, S.M., & Smith, G.D. (2011). Exploring nursing staff’s attitudes and use of music for older people with dementia in long term-care facilities. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20 (11-12), 1776-1783.
Svansdottir, H.B., & Snaedal, J. (2006). Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer’s type: a case-control study. International Psychogeriatric Association, 18(4), 613-21.
Raglio, A., Bellelli, G., Traficante, D., Gianotti, M., Ubezio, M.C., Villani, D., & Trabucchi, M. (2008). Efficacy of music therapy in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders, 22(2), 158–162.[/spoiler] [spoiler title=”Agitation and Dementia” open=”0″ style=”1″]
Burgio, L.D., Butler, F.R., Roth, D.L., Hardin, J.M., Hsu, C.C. & Ung, K. (2000). Agitation in nursing home residents: The role of gender and social context. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(4), 495-511.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. (2003). Agitation definitional and theoretical conceptualization. In D.P. Hay, D.T. Klein, L.K. Hay, G.T. Grossberg, & J.S. Kennedy (Eds.), Agitation in patients with dementia: A practical guide to diagnosis and management. American Psychiatric Publishing, 1-21.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Billig, N. (1986). Agitated behaviours in the elderly: a conceptual review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 34(10), 711-721.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Marx, M.S., & Rosenthal, A.S. (1989). A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 44(3), M77-M84.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Mintzer, J. (2005). Time for change: the role of nonpharmacological interventions in treating behavior problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 19(1), 37-40.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Werner, P., & Freeman, L. (1995). Sleep and agitation in agitated nursing home residents: An observational study. Sleep, 18(8), 674-680.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Werner, P., Watson, V., & Pasis, S. (1995). Agitation among elderly persons at adult day-care centers: The experiences of relatives and staff members. International Psychogeriatrics, 7(3), 447-458.
Forbes, D.A., Peacock, S., & Morgan, D. (2005). Nonpharmacological management of agitated behaviours associated with dementia. Geriatrics & Aging, 8(4), 26–30.
Hall, G.R., & Buckwalter, K.C. (1987). Progressively lowered stress threshold: a conceptual model for care of adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 1(6), 399-406.
Moretti, R., Torre, P., Antonello, R.M., & Pizzolato, G. (2006) Atypical neuroleptics as a treatment of agitation and anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease: risks or benefits. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 6(5), 705–710.
Sourial, R., McCusker, J., Cole, M., & Abrahamowicz, M. (2001). Agitation in demented patients in an acute care hospital: prevalence, disruptiveness, and staff burden. International Psychogeriatrics, 13(2), 183-197.
Werner, P., Cohen-Mansfield, J., Koroknay, V., & Braun J. (1994). The impact of a restraint reduction program on nursing home residents. Geriatric Nursing, 15(3), 142-146.[/spoiler] [spoiler title=”Anxiety and Dementia” open=”0″ style=”1″]
Ballard, C., Neill, D., O’Brien, J., McKeith, I.G., Ince, P., & Perry, R. (2000). Anxiety, depression and psychosis in vascular dementia: Prevalence and associations. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59(2), 97?106.
Chemerinski, E., Petracca, G., Manes, F., Leiguarda, R., & Starkstein, S.E. (1998). Prevalence and correlates of anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease. Depression and Anxiety, 7(4), 166?170.
Gibbons, L.E., Teri, L., Logsdon, R.G., & McCurry, S.M. (2006). Assessment of anxiety in dementia: An investigation into the association of different methods of measurement. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 19(4), 202?208.
Gibbons, L.E., Teri, L., Logsdon, R., McCurry, S.M., Kukull, W., Bowen, J., McCormick, W., & Larson, E. (2002). Anxiety symptoms as predictors of nursing home placement in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8(4), 335-342. doi: 1079-9362/02/1000-0335/0
McClive-Reed, K.P., & Gellis, Z.D. (2011). Anxiety and Related Symptoms in Older Persons with Dementia: Directions for Practice. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 54(1), 6–28.
Seignourel, P.J., Kunik, M.E., Snow, L., Wilson, N., & Stanley, M. (2008). Anxiety in dementia: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1071–1082.
Teri, L., Ferretti, L.E., Gibbons, L.E., Logsdon, R.G., McCurry, S.M., Kukull, W.A., McCormick, W.C., Bowen, .JD., & Larson, E.B. (1999). Anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease: Prevalence and comorbidity. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54(7), M348?M352.[/spoiler] [spoiler title=”General References for Alzheimer’s and Dementia” open=”0″ style=”1″]
Alzheimer’s Association, 2011 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. (2011). Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7(2). Available at: http://www.alz.org/downloads/Facts_Figures_2011.pdf. Accessed October 2011.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
DePaulo, J.R.Jr., & Folstein, M.F. (1978). Psychiatric disturbances in neurological patients: Detection, recognition, and hospital course. American Neurological Association, 4(3), 225–228.
Finkel, S.I. (2001). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a current focus of clinicians, researchers, and caregivers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 21), 3–6.
Hoe, J., Hancock, G., Livingston, G., & Orrell, M. (2006). Quality of life of people with dementia in residential care homes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 460?464.
Lyketsos, C.G., Lopez, O., Jones, B., Fitzpatrick, A.L., Breitner, J., & DeKosky, S. (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(12), 1475-1483.
Plassman, B.L., Langa, K.M., Fisher, G.G., Heeringa, S.G., Weir, D.R., Ofstedal, M.B., Burke, J.R., Hurd, M.D., Potter, G.G., Rodgers, W.L., Steffens, D.C., Willis, R.J., & Wallace, R.B. (2007). Prevalence of Dementia in the United States: The Aging, Demographics and Memory Study. Neuroepidemiology, 29(1-2), 125–132. doi: 10.1159/000109998
Starr, J.M., & Lonie, J. (2007). Relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24(5), 343–347.[/spoiler]